Of Stars and Atoms

  "Stars can be viewed as huge thermonuclear-fusion power-plants.  Their gravitational energy is so big that they are forced by nature to forge matter in their hearts.  All the heavy atoms the Earth is made of, all the atoms that are necessary for...

Of G. W. F. Hegel's Philosophy

    “Like his fellow students in Tübingen’s theological seminary, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin, the young Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was carried away by the Neoclassical movement.  Romanticism...

Of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right"

“G. W. F. Hegel’s Philosophy of Right can be understood only as the logical conclusion of an intellectual evolution which originated in the Romantic movement and in its idealized view of the Greek city-State.” -- Louis Dupré, The Philosophical...

Of Humanity's Double Life

  “Everyman leads a double life: a political one as member of the State, and a private one as member of society.  With respect to society the State represents an ideal sphere, just as heaven does with respect to earth.  In society man as private...

Of Velocity

  “The theories of Isaac Newton and of James Clerk Maxwell appear to contradict each other in a subtle way.  Maxwell’s equations determine a velocity: the velocity of light.  But Newton’s mechanics are not compatible with the existence of a...

Of the Economic Conditions of Human Freedom

  “In German Ideology, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels at one place criticize Max Stirner, who thinks that thus far men have liberated themselves only to the extent needed to realize their preconceived idea of man.  In fact, comment Marx and Engels,...

Of Humanity as an Economic Animal

 “According to a rather widely held view, Karl Marx investigated and determined the relationship between the different ‘spheres’ of man.  In the material production of means of subsistence he discovered the permanently determining factor of social...

Of Humanity as an Economic Animal

  “At first sight it appears that the view of man as an economic animal is authentically Marxist.  It is easy to show that it is found in Karl Marx and in the majority of the most important Marxists.” -- Gajo Petrović, Marx in the Mid-Twentieth...

Of Darwin and Marx

  “Just as Charles Darwin discovered the law of evolution in organic nature, so Karl Marx discovered, according to Friedrich Engels, the law of evolution in human history.” -- Gajo Petrović, Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century: A Yugoslav...

Of Logic and Mathematics

“In contemporary logic and mathematics there are  three basic views concerning their mutual relationship: according to one, mathematics is a part of logic; according to the second, logic is a part of mathematics; according to the third, they are two...

Of Schrödinger’s Wave

“The probability of finding an electron or any other particle at one point or another can be imagined as a diffuse cloud, denser where the probability of seeing the particle is stronger.  Sometimes it is useful to visualize this cloud as if it were a...

Of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty

  “We do not know with certainty where the electron will appear, but we can compute the probability that it will appear here or there.  This is a radical change from Isaac Newton’s theory, where it is possible, in principle, to predict the future...

Of Adaptation Vs. Transformation

Human beings have all too often simply adapted themselves to the world; the aim must be the revolutionary transformation of the world.

Of Defining Isms

One cannot speak of what socialism, democracy, capitalism, etc. are without speaking of what they are not.

Of Freedom

  “To ask about freedom’s essence does not mean to ask what freedom ought to be according to someone’s subjective whim or wish.  To inquire into the essence of freedom means to inquire into that by virtue of which freedom is a constituent of man,...

Of the Planck Length and Quantum Gravity

  “The length Lp is called the ‘Planck length'.  In numerical terms, it is equivalent to approximately one millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimeter (10-33 centimeters).  It is at this extremely minute scale that...

Of the Planck Scale

  “On our scale space is smooth.  If we move down to smaller and smaller regions of space, we reach a minute scale, called the ‘Planck scale,’ where space shatters and foams.” -- Carlo Rovelli, Reality Is Not What It Seems: The Journey to...

Of Dynamical Equations and Time

  “Dynamical equations, in physics, always contain the variable t, time.” -- Carlo Rovelli, Reality Is Not What It Seems: The     Journey to Quantum Gravity, 2017  

Of Spiritual Creativity

  “The products of spiritual creation are often more lasting than those of purely material activity.  Aeschylus’ and Sophocles’ plays, Aristotle’s and Plato’s works continue to live, while many products of ancient material culture have disappeared...

Of Humanity's Flaws and Virtues

If it is true that "all who love are blind", then to love humanity is perhaps to be blind to humanity's flaws.  But if the philanthropist (lover of humanity) is blind, then is not the misanthropist (hater of humanity) also blind, blind to humanity's...

OF Alienation

  “Those who oppose the characterization of alienation as a psychological concept usually say that it is ‘also’ (or ‘primarily’) an economic, or political, or sociological, or ethical concept.  And some insist that it is basically and first of all...

Of Human Beings as Tool-Making Animals

  “Taking into account that, in the material production the productive forces determine the relations of production, and that tools or instruments of production are the main element of the productive forces, it is still more precise to say that man...

Of Alienation

  “According to Gwynn Nettler, alienation is a certain psychological state of a normal person, and an alienated person is ‘one who has been estranged from, made unfriendly toward, his society and the culture it carries.’ (American Sociological...

Of the Need to Work

  “If the need for work is socially created, then surely it can be uncreated by social means – by education, by training?  This does not follow. The need to work in modern society is a real need, and it is an outcome and a product of modern...

Of Answers

To discover a well-proposed answer, you must first ask a well-posed question.