Of Exchanging Opinions and the Duties of a Citizen

  What is the Enlightenment model of how people change their opinions?  People change their opinions through information-gathering and reasoned deliberation.  It is the duty of every citizen to undertake the task of collecting as much knowledge and...

Of Money's Use

  “Money was invented to be used in exchange.” —Aristotle, Politics      

Of Production for Use Versus Production for Exchange

In his writings, Aristotle complained about the Delphian knife, which was “not good enough to do its job properly”, to quote Scott Meikle.  According to Aristotle, the maker of the Delphian knife exhibited “a ‘niggardly’ spirit (penikhrôs)”.  It was...

Of Ancient Society's Anti-Commercialism

  “Ancient society was not a market economy.  The product of labour did not universally take the form of a commodity or exchange value, since a sizeable proportion of production was undertaken for direct consumption rather than for sale.  The...

Of the Art of Money-Getting

  “Money-getting is a distinct art because it has a distinct end, and Aristotle says himself that when a professional art like medicine is pursued for the sake of money, the ends of the two arts of medicine and money-getting ‘pass into one another;...

Of Doing Venal Philosophy

According to Aristotle, the Sophist makes money, not philosophy.  Money-making has a tendency to corrupt any and every human activity.  Doing philosophy in order to make money debases and prostitutes philosophy; it degrades the otherwise worthy...

Of Economic Disputes

  “Arrogant self-confidence is the norm in economic debates.” —Michael Perelman,The Natural Instability of Markets: Expectations, Increasing Returns, and the Collapse of Capitalism, 1999  

Of Aristotle's Metaphysics and the Problem of Value

  “Aristotle has no labor theory of value.  He simply has no theory of value at all.  His contribution is not to have offered such a theory, but to have given a precise formulation of the problem which a theory of value has to solve.  E. Roll, in A...

Of Use Value and Human Well-Being in Economics

“If the economic activities dealt with in economic theory are M-C-M’ in nature, as Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes thought them to be, then there is a problem to be faced about how well, or whether, these activities...

Of Intelligence

  "'Tis good-will makes intelligence."   —Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-1882, American transcendentalist essayist, lecturer, and poet    

Of Intuition

According to Alyce Misner, intuition is "insight information".

Of Marx's Theory of Exchange/Economic Value

  “Karl Marx’s analysis of exchange value follows out the logic of Aristotle’s, and it is worked out on the basis of Aristotelian metaphysics.  Yet most of the common arguments usually regarded as fatal to it rest on principles of Humean...

Of Neoliberalism's Neofascist End

  “The neoliberal era in the United States ended with a neofascist bang.” —Cornel West, “Goodbye, American Neoliberalism”, November 2016  

Of Neofascism and Modern Science

  “None of modern science has the slightest value as knowledge.” —Julius Evola (1898-1974, Italian neofascist philosopher)  

Of Kushner and Financial Capital

  “Donald Trump’s son-in-law and advisor Jared Kushner is a real estate scion seeking to safeguard the interests of financial capital.” —John Bellamy Foster, “This Is Not Populism”, June 2017   

Of Trump amd the Restoration of U.S. Power

  “Under Donald Trump, the United States is being armed to the teeth, and is exhibiting greater signs of belligerence.  The new administration has now signed on to the neoconservative strategy of simultaneously opposing both Russia and China….The...

Of Neofascism and Pax Americana

  “America has to be strong—economically strong and militarily strong.  And a strong America could be ultimately a provider of Pax Americana.” —Steve Bannon  

Of Athenian Economic Life

  In his essay “Economic Life in Greece’s Golden Age”, H. Bolkestein quotes E. Meyer:  “Athens in the fifth and forth centuries stands as much under the sign of capitalism as England has stood since the eighteenth century and Germany since the...

Of Aristotle's Economic Thought

  “Aristotle not only did not do economics, but could not have done it, and could not even have conceived of it.” —Scott Meikle, Aristotle’s Economic Thought, 1995, 2002  

Of the Duty and Office of Citizens

I believe that it is the duty and office of citizens to reason together, to deliberate collectively in order to come to some agreement, some mutual understanding as concerns political matters and public concerns. Differences of opinion are good for...

Of Natural and Economic Processes

  “Natural processes and economic processes are intimately related.  We are actively engaged in reshaping nature.  In some cases, the goal is to modify nature directly.  We dam up rivers and level hills.  In other cases, the effects are...

Of the Market

  “The economy is unlike nature because humans created the market.” —Michael Perelman,The Natural Instability of Markets: Expectations, Increasing Returns, and the Collapse of Capitalism, 1999  

Of the Alternative to Capitalism

  “Communism still comes to many minds as the prime alternative to capitalism.” —Georgi Derluguian (Georgy Matveyevich Derlugan), Russian-American sociologist and academic  

Of the First Capitalist States

“The Netherlands and England were the first capitalist states.” —Georgi Derluguian (Georgy Matveyevich Derlugan), Russian-American sociologist and academic